Table of Contents

CONTENTS

Image Credits ………………………………………………………………… x

Foreword ………………………………………………………………….. xiii

How to Use This Book …………………………………………………… xv

Author’s Notes …………………………………………………………… xvii

Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………….. xix

Introduction …………………………………………………………………. 1

 

PART ONE: THE BASICS

Chapter 1: Approaching Outcomes

Outcomes: The Third Stage of Management ………………………….. 8

The Problem Approach …………………………………………………… 10

The Activity Approach …………………………………………………….. 11

The Process Approach ……………………………………………………. 12

The Vision Approach ……………………………………………………… 13

In Summary …………………………………………………………………. 15

 

Chapter 2: The Language of Outcomes

Understanding the Language …………………………………………… 17

Shifting Perspectives ……………………………………………………… 27

From Funder to Investor …………………………………………………. 28

From Activity to Results ………………………………………………….. 31

From Service to Change ………………………………………………….. 32

 

Chapter 3: The Shape of Outcomes

The Importance of a Target ……………………………………………… 35

Characteristics of Well-Defined Outcome Statements …………….. 36

Positive Improvement ……………………………………………………. 36

Meaningful ………………………………………………………………… 38

Sustainable ………………………………………………………………… 39

Bound in Time …………………………………………………………….. 42

Bound in Number …………………………………………………………. 43

Narrowly Focused . . . ……………………………………………………. 47

. . . and Doable (with a Stretch!) ………………………………………. 48

Measurable ………………………………………………………………… 49

Verifiable ………………………………………………………………….. 54

 

Chapter 4: Finding Your Outcomes

You Get What You Measure ……………………………………………… 57

Results-Based Accountability (RBA) ………………………………….. 62

A Common Outcome Framework ………………………………………. 65

Outcomes and Indicators ……………………………………………….. 66

Knowledge/Learning/Attitude …………………………………………. 66

Behavior ……………………………………………………………………. 66

Condition/Status ………………………………………………………….. 67

 

PART TWO: WORKING WITH OUTCOMES

Chapter 5: Planning with Outcomes …………………………….73

Outcome Management Framework …………………………………… 76

Another Approach ……………………………………………………….. 84

 

Chapter 6: The Capacity for Outcomes

CAT: The Capacity Assessment Tool ………………………………….. 95

GTO ………………………………………………………………………… 101

SEED ……………………………………………………………………….. 116

 

Chapter 7: Tracking with Outcomes …………………………… 121

 

Chapter 8: Learning with Outcomes

Data versus Information versus Knowledge ………………………… 135

 

Chapter 9: Communicating with Outcomes ……………….. 155

The Smart Chart …………………………………………………………. 159

 

Chapter 10: Communicating Our Outcomes ………………. 171

Scales and Ladders ……………………………………………………… 174

The Program Results Story ……………………………………………. 184

Three Core Questions: Audience, Content, and Flow ……………. 197

The Story Pyramid ……………………………………………………… 200

 

PART THREE: ADVANCED TOOLS

Chapter 11: The Power of Six Sigma …………………………… 211

 

Chapter 12: Keeping It All in Balance ………………………… 241

Typical Scorecard ……………………………………………………….. 242

The Public Sector Scorecard …………………………………………… 243

A Governmental Scorecard ……………………………………………. 245

A Social Sector Scorecard ……………………………………………… 246

An OASAS Scorecard …………………………………………………… 247

 

Chapter 13: Budgeting with Outcomes ………………………. 255

 

Chapter 14: Outcomes in Administration ………………….. 261

Writing the Results Description ……………………………………… 264

 

PART FOUR: OTHER TOOLS AND PERSPECTIVES

Chapter 15: A Different View of Nonprofits ……………….. 271

 

Chapter 16: Thinking about Value ……………………………. 279

 

Chapter 17: Building Value In ……………………………………. 291

 

Chapter 18: A Few Final Tools . . .

Looking for Trouble: FMEA ………………………………………….. 305

Gone Fishin’: A Cause and Effect Analysis ………………………….312

TRIZ: Considering the Contradictions ……………………………… 316

One Final Tool: Process Management ……………………………… 319

Process Documentation ……………………………………………….. 320

Process Mapping ……………………………………………………….. 324

Value Stream Mapping ………………………………………………… 326